The New Madrid earthquakes were the biggest earthquakes in American history. They occurred in the central Mississippi Valley, but were felt as far away as New York City, Boston, Montreal, and Washington D.C. President James Madison and his wife Dolly felt them in the White House. Church bells rang in Boston. From December 16, 1811 through March of 1812 there were over 2,000 earthquakes in the central Midwest, and between 6,000-10,000 earthquakes in the Bootheel of Missouri where New Madrid is located near the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
In the known history of the world, no other earthquakes have lasted so long or produced so much evidence of damage as the New Madrid earthquakes. Three of the earthquakes are on the list of America’s top earthquakes: the first one on December 16, 1811, a magnitude of 8.1 on the Richter scale; the second on January 23, 1812, at 7.8; and the third on February 7, 1812, at as much as 8.8 magnitude.
The tsunami, which could hit populated shores in just 15 minutes from a magnitude nine undersea overdue earthquake, would be caused by seismic activity in the Cascadia Subduction Zone – and should happen on average every 240 years.
Via : superstation95.com
Citizens in Ohio were shaken this morning by a Magnitude 3.0 earthquake, 15 km southwest of Woodfield, Ohio, near the border with West Virginia. It took place just before 8:00 AM Sunday Monring.
Earthquakes in the eastern USA are very rare.
Most of North America east of the Rocky Mountains has infrequent earthquakes. Here and there earthquakes are more numerous, for example in the New Madrid seismic zone centered on southeastern Missouri, in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic zone of eastern Quebec, in New England, in the New York – Philadelphia – Wilmington urban corridor, and elsewhere. However, most of the enormous region from the Rockies to the Atlantic can go years without an earthquake large enough to be felt, and several U.S. states have never reported a damaging earthquake.
Earthquakes east of the Rocky Mountains, although less frequent than in the West, are typically felt over a much broader region than earthquakes of similar magnitude in the west. East of the Rockies, an earthquake can be felt over an area more than ten times larger than a similar magnitude earthquake on the west coast. It would not be unusual for a magnitude 4.0 earthquake in eastern or central North America to be felt by a significant percentage of the population in many communities more than 100 km (60 mi) from its source. A magnitude 5.5 earthquake in eastern or central North America might be felt by much of the population out to more than 500 km (300 mi) from its source. Earthquakes east of the Rockies that are centered in populated areas and large enough to cause damage are, similarly, likely to cause damage out to greater distances than earthquakes of the same magnitude centered in western North America.
Most earthquakes in North America east of the Rockies occur as faulting within bedrock, usually miles deep. Few earthquakes east of the Rockies, however, have been definitely linked to mapped geologic faults, in contrast to the situation at plate boundaries such as California's San Andreas fault system, where scientists can commonly use geologic evidence to identify a fault that has produced a large earthquake and that is likely to produce large future earthquakes. Scientists who study eastern and central North America earthquakes often work from the hypothesis that modern earthquakes occur as the result of slip on preexisting faults that were formed in earlier geologic eras and that have been reactivated under the current stress conditions. The bedrock of Eastern North America is, however, laced with faults that were active in earlier geologic eras, and few of these faults are known to have been active in the current geologic era. In most areas east of the Rockies, the likelihood of future damaging earthquakes is currently estimated from the frequencies and sizes of instrumentally recorded earthquakes or earthquakes documented in historical records.
Earthquake could devastate California along San Andreas Fault with $289 billion in damages
A major earthquake could hit the San Andrea Fault in California and damage could be far worse than previously reported, new research shows.
Scientists believe that if an 8.0 magnitude earthquake were to rupture on the San Andreas Fault along the coast of California, which spans from Los Angeles County through the Mexican border, seismic waves could damage at least 3.5 million homes, according to data from CoreLogic.
The research firm said the 800-mile San Andreas Fault could rupture simultaneously and the cost to repair damages could be more than a whopping $289 billion.
Scientists believed that earthquakes couldn't occur on "creeping" sections of the San Andreas fault, which provides small earthquakes with a magnitude of 5 or lower, but they won't rule out the possibility that a larger one can occur.
The last major earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault happened in 1857 until another catastrophic one rocked San Francisco in 1906 that killed about 700 people.
But scientists, who warn that more needs to be done to prepare for the impending disaster, say the last one was 315 years ago -so it is 75 years overdue.
Chris Goldfinger, Oregon State earthquake geologist, is warning of the imminent risk.
The problem lies with the subduction zone where it meets the Oceanic Plate and is slowly forced beneath the North American plate
The Cascadia Subduction Zone is seventy miles off America's Pacific Northwest and stretches all the way from Vancouver Island to Northern California.
Mr Goldfinger said: "It buckles upward and it gets pushed backward like a spring until eventually, after a few hundred years, it just has to let go."
This is what triggers a massive tidal surge and the tsunami
The scientist and his team were the first to discover the next |"Big One" is long over due.
His team has collected samples of sediment from the ocean floor to look at movement.
They say that the signs that came before the 2011 Japanese tsunami which claimed 16,000 lives are happening around the subduction zone, but the US was not prepared for its effects.
Fears have heightened after a video emerged of a surge of water submerging Joe Creek near Pacific Beach in Washington state.
The footage, shot by Irene Sumi, shows a "rogue" wave rolling in and reaching inland.
She said the wave brought in logs and debris, while witnesses were left shaken up by the unexpected surge, and fear it could be a warning before the Big One.
He said: "There's nothing that compares to a magnitude 9 earthquake that North America has experienced in human history."
People are born with the innate desire to survive, but sadly, many in our increasingly dependent society look to others for relief and assistance following a disaster. The fact is that help from government, family, or neighbors is often unavailable when needed most, and in the end you may have only yourself to count on. Do you know what to do and how to do it if disaster strikes?
Although preparations are underway.
Students at Grays Harbor County School in Westport, Washington, have regular drills going to the top floor in the event of a 15-minute warning.
But scents have warned it would not be high enough at its current height.
Paula Akerlund, school superintendent, said: "Scientists tell us it will happen at some point.
"It's very unpredictable as to when. So we, we need to be prepared."
Builders have been hired to put up north America's first ever vertical evacuation structure on top of the school.
The structure will be 44 feet-high with 14 inch walls audits hoped it would provide safety high enough for students and staff.
Kenneth Murphy, Federal Emergency Management Agency's regional administrator, said: "I would never say we are ready.
"At least 10,000 plus would be killed from the tsunami if a magnitude 8.0 quake hit.
"They tremendously go up from a magnitude 9.0 quake.
"We're talking numbers that this nation, I'm not sure, is really prepared to deal with."
Some cities are now requiring new buildings are built to withstand a major earthquake, but it does not apply to existing older ones.
When most people think of the “Big One,” they often think about an earthquake caused by the San Andreas Fault. However, there’s actually a more dangerous fault called the Cascadia Subduction Zone. The Cascadia Subduction Zone, also known as the Cascadia Fault, is almost 700 miles long and stretches the west coast of North America from Vancouver Island to Northern California. For some perspective, an earthquake caused by the San Andreas Fault could reach 8.3 on the Richter scale, but a Cascadia earthquake will be more like a 9.2. That means that the quake could shake for up to four and a half minutes.
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